Advances in Food Technology and Nutrition Sciences Open Journal






Maca: Botanical Medicine from the AndesOpen Access


Maria Rosales-Hartshorn*

*Corresponding authors:   Maria Rosales-Hartshorn


http://dx.doi.org/10.17140/AFTNSOJ-1-e001


Citation


Rosales-Hartshorn M. Maca: botanical medicine from the andes. Adv Food Technol Nutr Sci Open J. 2015; 1(2): e1-e6. doi:10.17140/AFTNSOJ-1-e001




Copyright


© 2015 Rosales-Hartshorn M. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


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Editorial

Maca (Lepidium meyenii, Walp) (Brassicaceae) is a biennial herbaceous plant widely dispersed on high plateaus (altitudes between 4000 and 4500 masl) of the mountains in Peru, particularly in Junin. The underground part of the plant, the tuber, is the main product used for human consumption because of its nutritional value and phytochemical content.1-3 Maca presents three major phenotypes, yellow, red and black based on their hypocotyl and stem coloration (Figure 1).4 Andean people use maca as boiled or roasted food, in soups, or to prepare drinks, salads, jams, bread, coffee, substitutes, and even beer.5,6 A sweet aromatic dessert, called mazamorra, is prepared by boiling the roots in water or milk. A fermented drink, maca chichi, is also made and the dried roots are used to impart a special flavor to the sugar cane rum or aguardiente.1,7



Figure 1: Yellow, Red and Black Maca.

Figure 1: Yellow, Red and Black Maca.




Maca is rich in sugars, starch, protein (13-16%), glucosinolates and essential minerals, such as iron and iodine.1 Maca also contains other compounds such as fatty acids (linoleic, palmitic, and oleic acid mainly), aminoacids (lysine and arginine), many microelements, tannins and saponins. An important component of maca is a mixture of alkaloids known as macaines 1,2,3 and 4 and alkamides (macamides), including alcamide 1 to 5. Some authors suggest that active substances are not just prostaglandins and sterols, but also aromatic isothiocyanates, such as benzyl-isothiocyanate or p-methoxy-benzyl-isothiocyanate to which the aphrodisiac qualities are attributed. Also, the antioxidative activity of maca is linked to those substances.1,6-8 The main functional properties of maca are shown in Table 1.

Maca is an important source of glucosinolates mainly of the aromatic type (glucotropaeolin). Yábar et al35 identified six glucosinolates in the yellow, red and black ecotypes. These glucosinolates corresponded to 5-methylsulfinylpentyl, 4-hydroxybenzyl, benzyl, 3-methoxybenzyl, 4-hydroxy-3-indolylm- ethyl and 4-methoxy-3-indolylmethyl. Glucosinolates and their derived products have received scientific attention because of their biological activities, mainly against cancer. The anticancer properties of maca have been also attributed to its flavonoid content. Bai et al36 found three flavonoids in maca roots consisting of a tricin unit. Tricin has been considered as a potential cancer chemopreventive agent in humans. A specific study with red maca determined its efficacy on the regulation of prostatic growth by reducing prostate zinc levels in rats. As pointed out by Gonzales et al37 the determination of prostate weight and zinc levels can be considered as alternative markers to discriminate the effect of red maca from



Table 1: Main Functional Properties of Maca.

Table 1: Main Functional Properties of Maca.




different sources. Flavonoids in maca have shown to be potent inhibitors of monoamine oxidase activity, thus mimicking the actions of monoamine oxidase antidepressant medication. However the specific role of flavonoids in maca remains to be established. 27

In addition, maca is marketed for its reported benefit in relieving menopausal symptoms, although additional scientific data is necessary to support any efficacy. To this respect,27 showed the ability of maca to reduce psychological symptoms associated with menopause, including anxiety and depression, along with sexual dysfunction. It is difficult to postulate how maca is acting to reduce psychological symptoms, given the complex nature of psychological control; thus the mechanisms need further investigation.

Regarding the role of maca supplementation in endurance capacity and exercise performance, Stone et al38 determined that 14 days supplementation with maca extract significantly improved time to complete a 40 km time trial in trained male cyclists. Thus, the efficacy of maca extract on the improvement of exercise performance was demonstrated. Similarly, supplementation with the lipid-soluble maca extract for 3 weeks increased swimming time to exhaustion in weight- loaded forced swimming rats that can be partially explained by attenuation of exercise-induced oxidative stress.39

Maca is also known for its supportive effect on fertility and enhancing and aphrodisiac properties.6,27 Some studies reported the beneficial effects of maca in sexual function of mice and rats. Ethanol maca extract enhanced the sexual function of the mice and rats, as evidenced by an increase in the number of complete intromissions and the number of sperm-positive females in normal mice. Also, a decrease in the latent period of erection in male rats with erectile dysfunction was observed.25 Here, the aphrodisiac activity of L. meyenii was revealed. Additionally, the hexanicmaca extract improved the majority of the sexual parameters measured such as mount latency in sexually inexperienced male rats most effectively.26 The effect of maca on fertility has been also supported by Uchiyama et al.40 They investigated the effect of maca on the serum pituitary hormone levels during the pro-oestrus phase. It was demonstrated that maca uniquely enhances the luteinising hormone (LH) serum levels of pituitary hormones in female rats during the pro-oestrus LH surge and acts in a pharmacological, dose-dependent manner.

As mentioned above, the varieties of maca are based on the root color. Black maca enhanced daily sperm production and increased epididymal sperm motility, in adult rats, compared to red and yellow maca. In relation to the prostate weight, black or yellow maca did not affect it while red maca did reduce the weight. Thus, black maca appeared to have more beneficial effect on sperm counts and epididymal sperm motility than red and yellow maca.12 In a similar study, Rubio et al10 determined that maca reduced the harmful effect on daily sperm production caused by lead acetate treatment. Consequently, maca may become a potential treatment of male infertility associated with lead exposure. The acetate fraction of the hydroalcoholic black maca extract was also found to have the greatest effect in spermatogenesis in rats. As cited by the authors, antioxidant components could also play a role in the effect of increased epididymal sperm concentration.41

On the other hand, no increase in testosterone levels was observed in healthy men after 12 weeks of maca administration. Further studies are needed to determine the effect of maca administration in subjects with sexual dysfunction.3 Even tough, maca treatment produced a small effect of rat male sexual behavior, an increase in ejaculation latency and post ejaculatory interval was observed. Also, a long-term administration of maca did not increase anxiety.23

Furthermore, maca is recommended for malabsorption syndrome, ethylism, as a laxative, and during reconvalescence, owing to its excellence nutritional characteristics. Also, it is used to combat anemia and insomnia, reduce plasma glucose levels and free fatty acids and as a regulator of female menstruation and menopause.5,6

Maca contains several compounds but their specific biological activity and mechanisms of action have not been fully elucidated as yet. Given the maca’s compounds potential as anticarcinogenic, antioxidant, performance exercise enhancer among other benefits such as its positive effects on fertility and sexual dysfunction, this plant needs much more intense examination in the future that include human studies. Particularly, continued studies related to glucosinolates in cruciferous vegetables, mainly maca will create more confidence in people whose tendency of healthy eating habits is incessantly growing.




1. Ochoa C. Maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp.; Brassicaceae): A nutritious root crop of the central andes. Econ Bot. 2001; 55: 344-345. doi: 10.1007/BF02866557

2. Sandoval M, Okuhama NN, Angeles FM, et al. Antioxidant activity of the cruciferous vegetable Maca (Lepidium meyenii). Food Chem. 2002; 79: 207-213. doi: 10.1007/BF02866557 10.1016/S0308-8146- (02)00133-4

3. Gonzales GF, Cordova A, Vega K, Chung A, Villena A, Gonez C. Effect of Lepidium meyenii (Maca), a root with aphrodisiac and fertility-enhancing properties, on serum reproductive hormone levels in adult healthy men. J Endocrinol. 2003; 176: 163-168.

4. Esparza E, Hadzich A, Kofer W, Mithöfer A, Cosio EG. Bioactive maca (Lepidium meyenii) alkamides are a result of traditional Andean postharvest drying practices. Phytochemistry. 2015. doi: 10.1007/BF02866557 10.1016/j.phytochem.2015.02.030

5. Piacente S, Carbone V, Plaza A, Zampelli A, Pizza C. Investigation of the tuber constituents of maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp.). J Agric Food Chem. 2002; 50: 5621-5625.

6. Večeřa R, Orolin J, Škottová N, et al. The influence of maca (Lepidium meyenii) on antioxidant status, lipid and glucose metabolism in rat. Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 2007; 62: 59-63.

7. Balick MJ, Lee R. Maca: from traditional food crop to energy and libido stimulant. Altern Ther Health Med. 2002; 8: 96-98.

8. Muhammad I, Zhao J, Dunbar DC, Khan IA. Constituents of Lepidium meyenii “maca.” Phytochemistry. 2002; 59: 105-110.

9. Gonzales GF, Gasco M, Cordova A, Chung A, Rubio J, Villegas L. Effect of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on spermatogenesis in male rats acutely exposed to high altitude (4340 m). J Endocrinol. 2004; 180: 87-95.

10. Rubio J, Riqueros MI, Gasco M, Yucra S, Miranda S, Gonzales GF. Lepidium meyenii (Maca) reversed the lead acetate induced- Damage on reproductive function in male rats. Food Chem Toxicol. 2006; 44: 1114-1122.

11. Bustos-Obregón E, Yucra S, Gonzales GF. Lepidium meyenii (Maca) reduces spermatogenic damage induced by a single dose of malathion in mice. Asian J Androl. 2005; 7: 71-76.

12. Gonzales C, Rubio J, Gasco M, Nieto J, Yucra S, Gonzales GF. Effect of short-term and long-term treatments with three ecotypes of Lepidium meyenii (MACA) on spermatogenesis in rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2006; 103: 448-454. doi: 10.1016/j. jep.2005.08.035

13. Gonzales GF, Cordova A, Gonzales C, Chung A, Vega K, Villena A. Lepidium meyenii (Maca) improved semen parameters in adult men. Asian J Androl. 2001; 3: 301-303.

14. Gonzales GF, Vasquez V, Rodriguez D, et al. Effect of two different extracts of red maca in male rats with testosterone-induced prostatic hyperplasia. Asian J Androl. 2007; 9: 245-251.

15. Gonzales GF, Miranda S, Nieto J, et al. Red maca (Lepidium meyenii) reduced prostate size in rats. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2005; 3: 1-16. doi: 10.1186/1477-7827-3-5

16. Gasco M, Villegas L, Yucra S, Rubio J, Gonzales GF. Dose- response effect of red maca (Lepidium meyenii) on benign prostatic hyperplasia induced by testosterone enanthate. Phytomedicine. 2007; 14: 460-464.

17. Bogani P, Simonini F, Iriti M, et al. Lepidium meyenii (Maca) does not exert direct androgenic activities. J Ethnopharmacol. 2006; 104: 415-417.

18. Oshima M, Gu Y, Tsukada S. Effects of Lepidium meyenii Walp and Jatrophamacrantha on blood levels of estradiol-17 beta, progesterone, testosterone and the rate of embryo implantation in mice. J Vet Med Sci. 2003; 65: 1145-1146.

19. Ruiz-Luna AC, Salazar S, Aspajo NJ, Rubio J, Gasco M, Gonzales GF. Lepidium meyenii (Maca) increases litter size in normal adult female mice. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2005; 3: 1-6. doi: 10.1186/1477-7827-3-16

20. Gonzales C, Cárdenas-Valencia I, Leiva-Revilla J, Anza- Ramirez C, Rubio J, Gonzales GF. Effects of different varieties of Maca (Lepidium meyenii) on bone structure in ovariectomized rats. Forsch Komplementmed. 2010; 17: 137-143. doi: 10.1159/000315214

21. Lee MS, Shin B-C, Yang EJ, Lim H-J, Ernst E. Maca (Lepidium meyenii) for treatment of menopausal symptoms: A systematic review. Maturitas. 2011; 70: 227-233. doi: 10.1016/j. maturitas.2011.07.017

22. Zhang Y, Yu L, Ao M, Jin W. Effect of ethanol extract of Lepidium meyenii Walp. on osteoporosis in ovariectomized rat. J Ethnopharmacol. 2006; 105: 274-279.

23. Lentz A, Gravitt K, Carson CC, Marson L. Acute and chronic dosing of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on male rat sexual behavior. J Sex Med. 2007; 4: 332-340.

24. Cicero AF, Bandieri E, Arletti R. Lepidium meyenii Walp. improves sexual behaviour in male rats independently from its action on spontaneous locomotor activity. J Ethnopharmacol. 2001; 75: 225-229.

25. Zheng BL, He K, Kim CH, et al. Effect of a lipidic extract from Lepidium meyenii on sexual behavior in mice and rats. Urology. 2000; 55: 598-602.

26. Cicero AFG, Piacente S, Plaza A, Sala E, Arletti R, Pizza C. Hexanic Maca extract improves rat sexual performance more effectively than methanolic and chloroformic Maca extracts. Andrologia. 2002; 34: 177-179.

27. Brooks NA, Wilcox G, Walker KZ, Ashton JF, Cox MB, Stojanovska L. Beneficial effects of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on psychological symptoms and measures of sexual dysfunction in postmenopausal women are not related to estrogen or androgen content. Menopause. 2008; 15: 1157-1162. doi: 10.1097/ gme.0b013e3181732953

28. Gonzales GF, Cordova A, Vega K, et al. Effect of Lepidium meyenii (MACA) on sexual desire and its absent relationship with serum testosterone levels in adult healthy men. Andrologia. 2002; 34: 367-372.

29. Zenico T, Cicero AFG, Valmorri L, Mercuriali M, Bercovich E. Subjective effects of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) extract on well-being and sexual performances in patients with mild erectile dysfunction: A randomised, double-blind clinical trial. Andrologia. 2009; 41: 95-99. doi: 10.1111/j.1439-0272.2008.00892.x

30. López-Fando A, Gómez-Serranillos MP, Iglesias I, Lock O, Upamayta UP, Carretero ME. Lepidium peruvianum chacon restores homeostasis impaired by restraint stress. Phytother Res. 2004; 18: 471-474.

31. Rubio J, Caldas M, Dávila S, Gasco M, Gonzales GF. Effect of three different cultivars of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on learning and depression in ovariectomized mice. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2006; 6: 1-7. doi: 10.1186/1472-6882-6-23

32. Rubio J, Dang H, Gong M, Liu X, Chen S, Gonzales GF. Aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts of Black Maca (Lepidium meyenii) improve scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice. Food Chem Toxicol. 2007; 45: 1882-1890. doi: 10.1016/j. fct.2007.04.002

33. Lee KJ, Dabrowski K, Rinchard J, Gomez C, Luz L, Vilchez C. Supplementation of maca (Lepidium meyenii) tuber meal in diets improves growth rate and survival of rainbow trout Oncorhynchusmykiss (Walbaum) alevins and juveniles. Aquaculture Res. 2004; 35: 215-223. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2109- .2004.01022.x

34. Lee K-J, Dabrowski K, Sandoval M, Miller MJS. Activity- guided fractionation of phytochemicals of maca meal, their antioxidant activities and effects on growth, feed utilization, and survival in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) juveniles. Aquaculture. 2005; 244: 293-301. doi: 10.1016/j. aquaculture.2004.12.006

35. Yábar E, Pedreschi R, Chirinos R, Campos D. Glucosinolate content and myrosinase activity evolution in three maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp.) ecotypes during preharvest, harvest and postharvest drying. Food Chem. 2011; 127:1576-1583. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2011.02.021

36. Bai N, He K, Roller M, Lai C-S, Bai L, Pan M-H. Flavonolignans and other constituents from Lepidium meyenii with activities in anti-inflammation and human cancer cell lines. J Agric Food Chem. 2015; 63: 2458-2463. doi: 10.1021/acs. jafc.5b00219

37. Gonzales C, Leiva-Revilla J, Rubio J, Gasco M, Gonzales GF. Effect of red maca (Lepidium meyenii) on prostate zinc levels in rats with testosterone-induced prostatic hyperplasia. Andrologia. 2012; 44: 362-369. doi: 10.1111/j.1439-0272.2011.01190.x

38. Stone M, Ibarra A, Roller M, Zangara A, Stevenson E. A pilot investigation into the effect of maca supplementation on physical activity and sexual desire in sportsmen. J Ethnopharmacol.2009; 126: 574-576. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2009.09.012

39. Choi EH, Kang JI, Cho JY, et al. Supplementation of standardized lipid-soluble extract from maca (Lepidium meyenii) increases swimming endurance capacity in rats. J Funct Foods. 2012; 4: 568-573. doi:10.1016/j.jff.2012.03.002

40. Uchiyama F, Jikyo T, Takeda R, Ogata M. Lepidium meyenii (Maca) enhances the serum levels of luteinising hormone in female rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2014; 151: 897-902. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2013.11.058

41. Yucra S, Gasco M, Rubio J, Nieto J, Gonzales GF. Effect of different fractions from hydroalcoholic extract of Black Maca (Lepidium meyenii) on testicular function in adult male rats. Fertil Steril. 2008; 89: 1461-1467.


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TABLES and FIGURES



Tables


Table 1: Main Functional Properties of Maca.

Table 1: Main Functional Properties of Maca.



Figures


Figure 1: Yellow, Red and Black Maca.

Figure 1: Yellow, Red and Black Maca.





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References


1. Ochoa C. Maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp.; Brassicaceae): A nutritious root crop of the central andes. Econ Bot. 2001; 55: 344-345. doi: 10.1007/BF02866557

2. Sandoval M, Okuhama NN, Angeles FM, et al. Antioxidant activity of the cruciferous vegetable Maca (Lepidium meyenii). Food Chem. 2002; 79: 207-213. doi: 10.1007/BF02866557 10.1016/S0308-8146- (02)00133-4

3. Gonzales GF, Cordova A, Vega K, Chung A, Villena A, Gonez C. Effect of Lepidium meyenii (Maca), a root with aphrodisiac and fertility-enhancing properties, on serum reproductive hormone levels in adult healthy men. J Endocrinol. 2003; 176: 163-168.

4. Esparza E, Hadzich A, Kofer W, Mithöfer A, Cosio EG. Bioactive maca (Lepidium meyenii) alkamides are a result of traditional Andean postharvest drying practices. Phytochemistry. 2015. doi: 10.1007/BF02866557 10.1016/j.phytochem.2015.02.030

5. Piacente S, Carbone V, Plaza A, Zampelli A, Pizza C. Investigation of the tuber constituents of maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp.). J Agric Food Chem. 2002; 50: 5621-5625.

6. Večeřa R, Orolin J, Škottová N, et al. The influence of maca (Lepidium meyenii) on antioxidant status, lipid and glucose metabolism in rat. Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 2007; 62: 59-63.

7. Balick MJ, Lee R. Maca: from traditional food crop to energy and libido stimulant. Altern Ther Health Med. 2002; 8: 96-98.

8. Muhammad I, Zhao J, Dunbar DC, Khan IA. Constituents of Lepidium meyenii “maca.” Phytochemistry. 2002; 59: 105-110.

9. Gonzales GF, Gasco M, Cordova A, Chung A, Rubio J, Villegas L. Effect of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on spermatogenesis in male rats acutely exposed to high altitude (4340 m). J Endocrinol. 2004; 180: 87-95.

10. Rubio J, Riqueros MI, Gasco M, Yucra S, Miranda S, Gonzales GF. Lepidium meyenii (Maca) reversed the lead acetate induced- Damage on reproductive function in male rats. Food Chem Toxicol. 2006; 44: 1114-1122.

11. Bustos-Obregón E, Yucra S, Gonzales GF. Lepidium meyenii (Maca) reduces spermatogenic damage induced by a single dose of malathion in mice. Asian J Androl. 2005; 7: 71-76.

12. Gonzales C, Rubio J, Gasco M, Nieto J, Yucra S, Gonzales GF. Effect of short-term and long-term treatments with three ecotypes of Lepidium meyenii (MACA) on spermatogenesis in rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2006; 103: 448-454. doi: 10.1016/j. jep.2005.08.035

13. Gonzales GF, Cordova A, Gonzales C, Chung A, Vega K, Villena A. Lepidium meyenii (Maca) improved semen parameters in adult men. Asian J Androl. 2001; 3: 301-303.

14. Gonzales GF, Vasquez V, Rodriguez D, et al. Effect of two different extracts of red maca in male rats with testosterone-induced prostatic hyperplasia. Asian J Androl. 2007; 9: 245-251.

15. Gonzales GF, Miranda S, Nieto J, et al. Red maca (Lepidium meyenii) reduced prostate size in rats. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2005; 3: 1-16. doi: 10.1186/1477-7827-3-5

16. Gasco M, Villegas L, Yucra S, Rubio J, Gonzales GF. Dose- response effect of red maca (Lepidium meyenii) on benign prostatic hyperplasia induced by testosterone enanthate. Phytomedicine. 2007; 14: 460-464.

17. Bogani P, Simonini F, Iriti M, et al. Lepidium meyenii (Maca) does not exert direct androgenic activities. J Ethnopharmacol. 2006; 104: 415-417.

18. Oshima M, Gu Y, Tsukada S. Effects of Lepidium meyenii Walp and Jatrophamacrantha on blood levels of estradiol-17 beta, progesterone, testosterone and the rate of embryo implantation in mice. J Vet Med Sci. 2003; 65: 1145-1146.

19. Ruiz-Luna AC, Salazar S, Aspajo NJ, Rubio J, Gasco M, Gonzales GF. Lepidium meyenii (Maca) increases litter size in normal adult female mice. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2005; 3: 1-6. doi: 10.1186/1477-7827-3-16

20. Gonzales C, Cárdenas-Valencia I, Leiva-Revilla J, Anza- Ramirez C, Rubio J, Gonzales GF. Effects of different varieties of Maca (Lepidium meyenii) on bone structure in ovariectomized rats. Forsch Komplementmed. 2010; 17: 137-143. doi: 10.1159/000315214

21. Lee MS, Shin B-C, Yang EJ, Lim H-J, Ernst E. Maca (Lepidium meyenii) for treatment of menopausal symptoms: A systematic review. Maturitas. 2011; 70: 227-233. doi: 10.1016/j. maturitas.2011.07.017

22. Zhang Y, Yu L, Ao M, Jin W. Effect of ethanol extract of Lepidium meyenii Walp. on osteoporosis in ovariectomized rat. J Ethnopharmacol. 2006; 105: 274-279.

23. Lentz A, Gravitt K, Carson CC, Marson L. Acute and chronic dosing of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on male rat sexual behavior. J Sex Med. 2007; 4: 332-340.

24. Cicero AF, Bandieri E, Arletti R. Lepidium meyenii Walp. improves sexual behaviour in male rats independently from its action on spontaneous locomotor activity. J Ethnopharmacol. 2001; 75: 225-229.

25. Zheng BL, He K, Kim CH, et al. Effect of a lipidic extract from Lepidium meyenii on sexual behavior in mice and rats. Urology. 2000; 55: 598-602.

26. Cicero AFG, Piacente S, Plaza A, Sala E, Arletti R, Pizza C. Hexanic Maca extract improves rat sexual performance more effectively than methanolic and chloroformic Maca extracts. Andrologia. 2002; 34: 177-179.

27. Brooks NA, Wilcox G, Walker KZ, Ashton JF, Cox MB, Stojanovska L. Beneficial effects of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on psychological symptoms and measures of sexual dysfunction in postmenopausal women are not related to estrogen or androgen content. Menopause. 2008; 15: 1157-1162. doi: 10.1097/ gme.0b013e3181732953

28. Gonzales GF, Cordova A, Vega K, et al. Effect of Lepidium meyenii (MACA) on sexual desire and its absent relationship with serum testosterone levels in adult healthy men. Andrologia. 2002; 34: 367-372.

29. Zenico T, Cicero AFG, Valmorri L, Mercuriali M, Bercovich E. Subjective effects of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) extract on well-being and sexual performances in patients with mild erectile dysfunction: A randomised, double-blind clinical trial. Andrologia. 2009; 41: 95-99. doi: 10.1111/j.1439-0272.2008.00892.x

30. López-Fando A, Gómez-Serranillos MP, Iglesias I, Lock O, Upamayta UP, Carretero ME. Lepidium peruvianum chacon restores homeostasis impaired by restraint stress. Phytother Res. 2004; 18: 471-474.

31. Rubio J, Caldas M, Dávila S, Gasco M, Gonzales GF. Effect of three different cultivars of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on learning and depression in ovariectomized mice. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2006; 6: 1-7. doi: 10.1186/1472-6882-6-23

32. Rubio J, Dang H, Gong M, Liu X, Chen S, Gonzales GF. Aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts of Black Maca (Lepidium meyenii) improve scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice. Food Chem Toxicol. 2007; 45: 1882-1890. doi: 10.1016/j. fct.2007.04.002

33. Lee KJ, Dabrowski K, Rinchard J, Gomez C, Luz L, Vilchez C. Supplementation of maca (Lepidium meyenii) tuber meal in diets improves growth rate and survival of rainbow trout Oncorhynchusmykiss (Walbaum) alevins and juveniles. Aquaculture Res. 2004; 35: 215-223. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2109- .2004.01022.x

34. Lee K-J, Dabrowski K, Sandoval M, Miller MJS. Activity- guided fractionation of phytochemicals of maca meal, their antioxidant activities and effects on growth, feed utilization, and survival in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) juveniles. Aquaculture. 2005; 244: 293-301. doi: 10.1016/j. aquaculture.2004.12.006

35. Yábar E, Pedreschi R, Chirinos R, Campos D. Glucosinolate content and myrosinase activity evolution in three maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp.) ecotypes during preharvest, harvest and postharvest drying. Food Chem. 2011; 127:1576-1583. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2011.02.021

36. Bai N, He K, Roller M, Lai C-S, Bai L, Pan M-H. Flavonolignans and other constituents from Lepidium meyenii with activities in anti-inflammation and human cancer cell lines. J Agric Food Chem. 2015; 63: 2458-2463. doi: 10.1021/acs. jafc.5b00219

37. Gonzales C, Leiva-Revilla J, Rubio J, Gasco M, Gonzales GF. Effect of red maca (Lepidium meyenii) on prostate zinc levels in rats with testosterone-induced prostatic hyperplasia. Andrologia. 2012; 44: 362-369. doi: 10.1111/j.1439-0272.2011.01190.x

38. Stone M, Ibarra A, Roller M, Zangara A, Stevenson E. A pilot investigation into the effect of maca supplementation on physical activity and sexual desire in sportsmen. J Ethnopharmacol.2009; 126: 574-576. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2009.09.012

39. Choi EH, Kang JI, Cho JY, et al. Supplementation of standardized lipid-soluble extract from maca (Lepidium meyenii) increases swimming endurance capacity in rats. J Funct Foods. 2012; 4: 568-573. doi:10.1016/j.jff.2012.03.002

40. Uchiyama F, Jikyo T, Takeda R, Ogata M. Lepidium meyenii (Maca) enhances the serum levels of luteinising hormone in female rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2014; 151: 897-902. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2013.11.058

41. Yucra S, Gasco M, Rubio J, Nieto J, Gonzales GF. Effect of different fractions from hydroalcoholic extract of Black Maca (Lepidium meyenii) on testicular function in adult male rats. Fertil Steril. 2008; 89: 1461-1467.

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May, 2015
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Received: April 23rd, 2014
Accepted: May 8th, 2015
Published: May 11th, 2015



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Editor-in-Chief

Michael J. Gonzalez, PhD, CNS, FACN
Professor of Nutrition Program
School of Public Health Medical Sciences Campus
University of Puerto Rico
Gobernador Pinero, San Juan, 00921, Puerto Rico




Associate Editor

Yaning Sun, PhD
Translational Gerontology Branch
NIH Biomedical Research Center
251 Bayview Blvd., Suite 100
Baltimore, MD, 21224, USA




Associate Editor

Zheng Li, PhD
Food Science and Human Nutrition
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA




Associate Editor

Cheryl Reifer, PhD, RD, LD
Interim VP, Scientific Affairs Consultant at Sprim Advanced Life Science
President at Cheryl J. Reifer, LLC
4601 Cape Charles Dr. Plano, TX 75024, USA



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